In addition to receiving professional care in patients with hemiplegia, the home care work after the patient is discharged home will rise to the main position, and it is a long-term, long-lasting, massive and meticulous job. Care of patients is scientific and reasonable, a direct impact on the rehabilitation of patients. Therefore, home care should pay attention to the following aspects:
⑴ family environment As a result of patient mobility, to maintain a clean, comfortable indoor environment is very important.Indoor temperature 20 ℃ ~ 25 ℃, humidity 50% to 60%. Note that the indoor air fresh, window ventilation, but should avoid direct wind blows patients. Cold season should pay attention to keep warm, prevent colds. Can play the patient's favorite music, so that patients remain optimistic and relaxed mood.
⑵ diet can not eat their own patients, their families to help their food. Let the patient take the seat or semi-recumbent. Lying when the patient's head and body tend to contralateral, to prevent food choking into the trachea. Feeding, the speed should not be too fast, each volume can not be too large, do not urge patients. Paste a meal to 1 teaspoon is appropriate, flow to feed the spoon. Drinking water, after eating, so that patients cough or shoot the back of the next. Dietary principles: diet should be nutrient-rich variety, and try to make high protein, high vitamin, high cellulose. Elderly patients, should also be made low cholesterol, low fat, low sugar, low salt.
⑶ toilet care ① due to patient mobility, urine and timely to help them with warm water to wash, keep the clothes and sheets clean and dry. Found the skin around the anus flushing, washed with warm water after drying coated with zinc oxide ointment or talcum powder. ② patients to develop good bowel habits. Defecation time is generally the most appropriate after breakfast, when the strongest gastrointestinal reflex. Defecation bedridden patients with lateral position, buttocks under the urine is not wet or waterproof plastic single, toilet paper, it is best not to use potty, such as with potty, pay attention not to force drag, pull to avoid scratching the skin or pressure to form bed sores. A well-balanced patient should be trained for sitting defecation. ③ long-term bedridden patients, bowel movements weakened, in order to prevent constipation, to intake of adequate water, eat more foods containing cellulose. Encourage patients to do more abdominal exercise, each meal can be clockwise massage the abdomen for several minutes, increase bowel movements, the stool to the rectum, massage direction: from the right lower quadrant right upper quadrant left upper quadrant left lower abdomen. If constipation, should be given early laxatives. Cut into strips with open plugs or soap soaked with water. These methods are still invalid, they put on gloves dipped in soap and water from the anus out of the feces.
⑷ position care and functional training for hemiplegic patients are often limb massage, with sunflower oil smear limb, 2 times a day, each limb 5 to 10 minutes. Gentle and slow progress, the role of moderate degree of deep, paralyzed muscle massage, kneading, to antagonize the muscle to give comfort to push the friction, to relax.
⑸ skin care to keep the skin dry and clean, clean bed, no waste, every day regularly turn over, 2 to 4 hours a time, stand up to avoid pulling the patient to prevent injury to the skin, check the compression side of the skeleton of the dragon, regular massage, Local blood circulation. To prevent the occurrence of pressure sores; compression can be used from the gas pad, the congestion can be used safflower oil massage, with infrared light irradiation.
⑹ psychological care due to sudden cerebrovascular accident caused by hemiplegic patients, psychological serious blow and contusion, easy to produce irritability, pessimism, depression, consciousness of the feelings of rehabilitation lost confidence.Family members to strengthen communication with patients to encourage patients with a strong conviction and happy mood to accept rehabilitation, functional exercise; in the patient's ability to encourage their appropriate housework, reduce the patient's inferiority complex. Less to see exciting film and television, learn to self-relaxation, to ensure adequate sleep.
⑺ language training hemiplegia patients accompanied by exercise aphasia to train the main expression, first of all to the sound of muscle training. Practice from the beginning of a word, gradually to a phrase, a phrase, step by step, at the same time pay attention to the patient's depression; sensory aphasia to training auditory repeat mainly in the training with pictures, gestures and expressions, and In the voice of their own voice together to reach the purpose of understanding; naming aphasia mainly in the text called the main; dysphonia to the main pronunciation, mainly the throat lip coordination training, training in the promotion of patients with language training Of interest, but also timely to give the spirit of encouragement, to enhance their self-confidence in rehabilitation training.
⑻ daily life action training family members should use daily life to help patients to exercise, on the one hand to help patients as soon as possible independent life, the other side is conducive to patient rehabilitation. Improve the level of self-care. In addition, minor hemiplegia patients with household labor training is also very important, such as exercise healthy hand cooking, the seasoning, oil bottles on a convenient location. First in the room to do stacking, washing dishes, finishing bookcases, switch windows and other activities, but also gradually go out for a walk, the sun, but not far away to prevent the fall. And encourage the gradual increase of social activities to reintegrate into society.